climatic characteristics:The industrial city located in northern east of Damascus city in southern region of Syrian Arab country . where the semi- continental climate prevails distinguished with cold, rainy winter and hot, dry summer in addition to ,tow transitory moderate seasons (spring & fall) .
This country region is exposed to many variation in atmosphere pressure stared from low pressures spread over the Mediterranean sea which from over it between (October and April) bring to the region changeable air- mass burdened with moisture so rain and snow fall over heights.
-In addition to the cold Siberian air- mass with its northern and northern east cold dry wind resuming days and weeks occasionally during winter. In spring and fall the climate becomes moderate, the region affected by khamasin which formed in spring over the north of Africa near Mediterranean coasts or in the middle of Arabian peninsula these low air mass hold hot air – mass- sands and dust(rain may fall occasionally).
-The low air – mass ceased in spring according to azury high air – mass progress toward north.
-Summer of the region characterized with dry and hot temperature, the wind is western with occasionally fast speed.
In the following :the climatic characteristic according to dumma climatic station records, related primary to meteorology est.1.The climatic environment:Damascus region in which the industrial city located ,classified within the dry region that dominated Syrian Arab republic expanded from north till south, in addition to some northern east regions of the country.2.Continental climate:The continental climate expresses the ranges between the minimum and maximum temperatures in the region, it reaches(100)% in the desert regions and (0)% in the coastal regions.
The studied continental climate reaches the rate about 40% and it may reaches 45% sometimes, according to what mentioned in Syrian climatic atlas.3.Temperature:the temperature degrees decrease when going up over the sea level , and from summer to winter months. Temperature average reaches (12.3)0c,but the maximum monthly average of temperature degree reaches (23.7)0c and the absolute maximum temperature degree reaches (41.7)0c in august, as for the minimum temperature degree reaches (8) and the absolute minimum one reaches(-9)0c in December.4.Rain Fall:The rain full average according to dumma climatic station reaches(198.2)mm , rain full time stare generally on October and gradually increased till reach the top in winter months when the rain fall reaches (41)mm on October then gradually decrease until almost finished in summer.5.relativity moisture:it is related to water steam amount ,temperature degree , height over sea level , density and spread of plants.
The average of relativity moisture reaches (61.2)%, it decreases on June to (44.7)% while increases on December and January to reach (77)%.6.probable vaporization:the value of probable vaporization reflects the relationship between heat and water vapor according to their sources and local factors affection. The daily average of vaporization according to dumma station records reaches (3.7)mm and increasing on summer till(6.4)mm on July ,and decreasing till (1.2)mm on December and January.7.the prevailing wind:western and southern west wind are prevailing in adra industrial city, eastern and northern east wind blowing less than the first specially in fall and winter ,reaching(30-25)m/s in speed.8.special meteoric phenomena:climatic influences on the industrial city are weak , the yearly average of frost days is /92/ days per year , and the yearly average of fog days is /10/ days per year, and the yearly average of sandstorm is /5/ days per year, but the cold does not influence the area.The hydrologic characteristics:The site of the industrial city near the mountain chain of about Aata on the southern east foot to this chine make it exposed to dangerous floods consequent to water flow in streams formed by rain fall on the chain.Rain studying:Counting rain characteristics depended on Damascus station data according to absence of main station in the regions, and similarity of sea level in the tow regions.
Damascus –mazzah station affected by the values of maximum rainfall during different periods (15-30-60-360-720)minutes during year months.
At the time when the ordinary year start in January and end in December adopted by the general directorate of meteorology measures were changed to hydrologic year start in September and end in august.